Heatwaves and cold spells have been known to have a negative effect on mortality. A recent study using data collected from 384 locations showed approximately 7.7% of mortality was credited to sub-optimal temperature. Best article writing service made a study which showed that cold was responsible for more deaths than heat. Numerous studies have exposed the adverse health effects of temperature extremes. Therefore, climate change, more specifically, high and low temperatures, is of significant relevance when compared to absolute temperature levels.
Climate change affects the air we breathe both indoors and outdoors. On a much broader scale, the changes in climate have an impact on the quality of air in three ways; outdoor pollution, indoor pollution and aeroallergens. Poor quality and temperature of the air are harmful to the human cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Furthermore, premature deaths and acute respiratory problems have been credited to poor quality and temperature of air.
The human race is ageing faster than ever before. According to the World Ageing Report, senior citizens (60 or older) are expected to make up approximately 21.1% of the population by the year 2050. Reports suggest that temperature-related mortality will also increase. This is because of new evidence linking air temperature to mortality. However, these studies were carried out with a particular outcome in mind; high temperature or low-temperature mortality rates.
Studies would be of more significance of they conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to produce the qualitative and quantitative evidence in favour of mortality as a result of non-optimum highs and low temperatures. Furthermore, it is essential to note that most of these studies do not factor heat waves or cold spells. This is because they are unique and random events which bear their own traits.
Authors publishing these reports identified that the elderly were at higher risks of developing temperature-induced cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and respiratory outcomes. When it came to the risk of morbidity with regards to respiratory causes, the estimates were much higher when compared to cardiovascular causes. This phenomenon has been shown in other studies performed by different authors.
It is unclear the underlying mechanisms in which high temperatures might exacerbate the risk of respiratory diseases. Furthermore, authors such as Bunker were able to link heart induced diabetes, and infectious disease morbidity to climate change and global ageing. With the population rapidly ageing, there is one area of concern that has stood out from the rest; mental illness. Cognitive functions and abilities are under the influence of environmental stressors.
The European Environment Agency estimates that 75% of Europeans live in cities and urban areas. This number is expected to rise to 80% by 2020. There is no doubt that urban areas have improved education and healthcare systems when compared to rural areas. However, these areas are subject to negative lifestyle behaviours which affect the overall health of individuals. If the green cover keeps diminishing at the current rate, then urban areas will experience an 8.2 °C increase in temperature in the next 70 years. Human health and wellbeing start with environmental preservation.
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